This is Donovan's book up to section 26. As it is available in pdf form I am only adding to it very occasionally though I might speed up if I see this page being often used.

Advanced Greek Prose Composition, Donovan


The aim of this work is to afford genuine help to all who wish to obtain a mastery of Ancient Greek.

Its plan is outlined in the General Introduction.

This volume presents to the learner more than half the treatise on the " Functions and Equivalents of the Subordinate Clause and of the Parts of Speech," together with a corresponding "Digest of Greek Idioms." These large collections of examples are possibly unique. They are the fruits of many years devoted to the all-engrossing, if somewhat thankless, labor of teaching Greek.

This work should prove serviceable to the ever-dwindling, though not inconsiderable, number of students, who are preparing for University Scholarships, or for distinction in the multitudinous examinations that close the school curriculum ; and, last but not least, to those who include Greek in their Honours Course at a University. The author hopes to make the road smoother for them than it was for him forty years ago. The work is so planned that each chapter, while forming part of one system, yet constitutes a separate and complete treatise of itself, which may with profit be studied quite independently of the rest.

GENERAL INTRODUCTION Theory of Greek Prose Composition.

In the somewhat difficult, if useful exercise of Greek Prose Composition it is possible to distinguish a fourfold process. The first is the Framework of the Paragraph (Grouping) or the General Structure of the Passage set for translation.

The short, often disconnected sentences, following in quick succession, so much in vogue in modern English, must be grouped together so as to build up the periodic type of sentence prevalent in Greek and Latin. This process consists in focussing ideas and grouping them round the main statement.

The second process is the linking together of sentence with sentence within the paragraph by suitable connective particles.

The third process (Wording) — the most arduous of all — is the Proper Choice of Words and Expressions for the several parts whether independent or dependent, subordinate or co-ordinate.

The fourth process is the structure of each individual sentence. This involves two operations : (a) (Building) the choice of the principal clause or clauses, and their coordination, as well as the selection of suitable subordinate clauses; (b) (Placing) the Order of Words in the whole sentence and in each part.

§ 2. The Latin and Greek Languages possessing, as they did, a wealth of inflections and syntactical functions, absent in the modern languages of Europe ; being, in a word, synthetic and not analytic, necessarily influenced the mental habits and mode of expression of those who used these languages as a vehicle of thought. The synthetic character of their language drove the Greeks and Romans to embrace at one glance, a wider area of ideas and facts, than that with which our analytical language allows us, at one and the same time, to burden our minds. Our tendency is towards analysis. To us every item of thought is a thing apart, to be noted down separately ; almost every detail of an action calls for a separate independent statement. The time, the place, the end or object of an action ; its manifold attendant circumstances, anything in fact, calls for a distinct statement by a principal verb. The classical writers, on the contrary, single out one incident, the chief act or event, the leading idea, and make it the centre of vision. Everything else is grouped around it as accidental and only subordinate to the main statement. Hence the first task in translating 1 from English into Greek will be to settle how much of the facts or ideas to be conveyed would be grasped at once by the Greek or Roman mind. Sometimes it will happen that two, three,, or even more English sentences, will have to be fused together if our translation is to read like Latin or Greek. Occasionally, however, it will be seen that one English sentence, for example, of the Johnsonian type, has sufficient breadth of view to satisfy classical love of comprehensiveness. An example of grouping is here subjoined.
§3. " All their allies were in a state of despondency. The Peloponnesians, intent on their own safety, were engaged in fortifying the Isthmus. The other States had been reduced to bondage by the Persians, and they were taking the field with them, with the exception of one or two which had been over- looked because of their insignificance. Twelve hundred men-of- war were sailing against the Capital, and a land force of countless legions was about to invade Attica. No hope of safety lay in sight : on the contrary the Athenians had been stripped of their allies and had witnessed the disappointment of all their hopes. (In this plight) although it was open to them not only to escape all present danger, but even to receive the honours and distinctions which the King offered in the idea that the acquisition of the (Athenian) navy would bring about the speedy subjugation of the Peloponnesus, nevertheless they did not submit to await the royal gifts ; nor, in rage at the Hellenes because of their treachery, did they readily embrace the Persian terms, but they made ready single-handed to strike a blow for liberty, and they pardoned those whose choice was slavery." The foregoing passage, it will be observed, comprises six sentences. The main fact which the writer wishes to emphasize and place forcibly before the reader, is the non-surrender of Athens to the apparently advantageous overtures of the Persian King. All the other circumstances : — the general despair, the selfishness of Peloponnesus, the compulsory service in the enemy's ranks of Asiatic and other Greeks, the Armada on the seas, the mighty hosts bearing down on Attica, the ingratitude of the rest of the Hellenes — all these details only tend to heighten the sacrifice made by Athens. These incidents must be grouped round the main event, and accordingly, the principal verb is reserved for this the chief action, i.e. the heroic renunciation of the Athenians. Therefore the first five sentences will be rendered by subordinate clauses; thus better to throw into relief the idea uppermost in the writer's mind. Hence, in Greek the whole passage works out in one sentence, as follows : — Ἀθύμως γὰρ ἁπάντων τῶν συμμάχων διακειμένων, καὶ Πελο- ποννησίων μὲν διατειχιζόντων τὸν ἰσθμὸν καὶ ζητούντων ἰδίαν αὐτοῖς σωτηρίαν, τῶν δ’ ἄλλων πόλεων ὑπὸ τοῖς βαρβάροις γεγενημένων καὶ συστρατευομένων ἐκείνοις, πλὴν εἴ τις διὰ μικρότητα παρημελήθη, προσπλεουσῶν δὲ τριηρῶν διακοσίων καὶ χιλίων καὶ πεζῆς στρατιᾶς ἀναριθμήτου μελλούσης εἰς τὴν Ἀττικὴν εἰσβάλλειν, οὐδεμιᾶς σωτηρίας αὐτοῖς ὑποφαινομένης, ἀλλ’ ἔρημοι συμμάχων γεγενημένοι καὶ τῶν ἐλπίδων ἁπασῶν διημαρτηκότες, ἐξὸν αὐτοῖς μὴ μόνον τοὺς παρόντας κινδύνους διαφυγεῖν ἀλλὰ καὶ τιμὰς ἐξαιρέτους· λαβεῖν, ἃς αὐτοῖς ἐδίδου βασιλεὺς ἡγούμενος, εἰ τὸ τῆς πόλεως προσλάβοι ναυτικὸν παραχρῆμα καὶ Πελοποννήσου κρατήσειν, οὐχ ὑπέμειναν τὰς παρ’ ἐκείνου δωρεὰς οὐδ’ ὀργισθέντες τοῖς ἽΞλλησι, ὅτι προυδόθησαν, ἀσμένως ἐπὶ τὰς διαλλαγὰς τὰς πρὸς τοὺς βαρ- βάρους ὥρμησαν, ἀλλ’ αὐτοὶ μὲν ὑπὲρ τῆς ἐλευθερίας πολεμεῖν παρεσκευάζοντο, τοῖς δ’ ἄλλοις τὴν δουλείαν αἱρουμένοις συνγ- Ύνώμην εἶχον. Isoc. Paneg. 93-96.
§ 4. The process of grouping accomplished, suitable links must be chosen to connect one sentence with another. (Vide Part III., Ch. 20.)

§5. Before proceeding to sentence-building, the student must be in possession of the Greek equivalents of the various portions of the English he is about to transfer to Greek. The mason must have bricks and mortar ready, before placing them in position. After deciding on the limits of the sentence in formation, the next step is the search for Greek equivalents. Here lies the chief difficulty, as well as the educative value of Greek Prose Composition. This quest is a vastly more difficult enterprise than the similar quest for equivalents in translation to a modern language, thanks to the similarity of the civilization, social life and modes of thought prevalent throughout Europe.

The genius of the Ancient Languages differs so radically from that of modern speech, that the happy selection of the exact Greek equivalent of almost any given English expression is a very delicate process, and calls into play man's highest powers of memory, judgment, and fineness of perception. In this task the English-Greek Lexicon will be of little value. Reading will avail much, and will in the long run furnish the main source of supply. It is, however, possible to afford the student real help in this the most arduous process of Greek composition. The bulk of the contents of this work is directed to this end.

It is easy to tell the student he must "disregard English words and look only to sense"; that he must fix his mind on the thoughts, and not on words. Is it not possible to make a further analysis, and lay down more specific precepts to enable him to carry out this golden rule ? An attempt to do so is here made, on a larger scale than has hitherto been tried. A twofold method is adopted.

The first consists of the utilization of Greek Syntax as well as of the ultimate parts of speech to ascertain the functions they fulfill for a translator from English into Greek. (Functions and Equivalents.)

The second is based on difference of idiom. (Fundamental Differences, Part II.)

The fourth and last process— The GENERAL STRUCTURE of the WHOLE SENTENCE. (Building and Placing).

With materials at hand, there remains the comparatively easy task of combining- them into a single whole. For this a know- ledge is necessary of the ordinary laws of Syntax, as well as of the functions of syntactical formula. Here the student has to decide what the principal verb (or verbs, if there be more than one) is to be ; he has further to select, out of many possible forms of subordinate clause, just those most appropriate to his purpose, and this with regard to each dependent clause occurring in the whole sentence. Very often, for instance, it will happen that, from the point of view of Syntax and correct diction, a genitive absolute, an adverb clause, or a noun clause, may be equally admissible and supply an adequate rendering; yet he must select, out of these, just the one most suitable to the general purport of the sentence as a whole. All sorts of considerations enter here to determine the choice : harmony, avoidance of monotonous repetition, emphasis, some word or words used in the neighboring clause.

It is well to observe that the distribution of sense throughout the sentence differs wholly in Greek and English. As a general principle it matters not whether any portion of the ideas to be conveyed be expressed by a verb, a substantive, an adverb, an adjective, or indeed by a whole clause; whether it be subject, attribute or predicate ; whether it be subordinate or co-ordinate. None of these contingencies has of itself any significative value essential to the manifestation of the whole thought. Latin and Greek make use of this latitude of speech in a manner quite foreign to modern diction. Accordingly, though the content be the same, the external structure of the Greek or Latin sentence will differ completely from ours. Hence in translation very often there will be a regular upheaval of the English form of sentence. The same principal verb need not be retained, a Greek verb may replace the English substantive, a participle may replace an English adverb, and so on almost ad infinitum.

Lastly the order or position of clauses, and of words in clauses, must be taken into account. This subject receives special treatment under the head of Minor Differences. (Part III.)

It has been already stated that the chief and most arduous task in the work of writing Greek prose is the clothing in Greek garb of ideas expressed in English ; in other words, the proper selection of words and expressions.

This task will be greatly facilitated, if the student obtains a thorough and abiding grasp of the Fundamental Differences between Greek and English Idiom. (Part II.) Typical idioms drawn from this source should be committed to memory.

He will be further equipped for his work, if he makes himself familiar with the Functions of the Greek parts of speech, and their equivalents for the purpose of prose composition. (Part I.)

He must realize what each of these can do, what they cannot do, and what equivalents supplement their deficiencies.

His repertoire of Greek Idiom will be complete if he further masters the functions of the Syntactical Formulas (Part I., Ch. 1), the bald exposition of which is furnished by Syntax.

Thus the scope of this work is directed to affording help towards the proper selection of words and expressions. It is called a Theory of Greek Prose, inasmuch as it offers a scientific exposition of the chief and most difficult of the various processes through which the mind consciously or unconsciously passes in the task of translation into Greek.

Chapter 1

Syntax and Idiom of the Greek Subordinate Clause or Functions and Equivalents of Syntactical Formulae Functions of Syntactical Formulae
§7 It is assumed that the reader has some acquaintance with Sentence Analysis. All statements whereby any judgment is expressed, in which a complete thought is manifested, may be ultimately resolved into principle and subordinate propositions. These have been carefully subdivided by Grammarians, both from a logical and linguistic point of view. The categories thus resulting are, so to speak, the molds through which our thoughts must pass, if we wish to make ourselves understood. We cannot fashion new molds to suit our thoughts, but must force the latter int those already existing, which are the common property o mankind. Hence the great dependence of thought on language. As these categories hold good for all languages, the student who has mastered them, as they apply to Latin or Greek, has at his disposal a ready instrument for acquiring the syntactical structures of any foreign tongue.
The Principle Clauses in Greek need not occupy our attention. Their exposition as found in any good Greek Grammar are quite adequate even for the writer of Greek Prose.
§8 It is otherwise with Subordinate Clauses. Their number, variety , and characteristic differences so engross the mind of the youthful learner that he is apt to consider them exclusively from the grammatical standpoint. The measure of their value as instruments of composition is too often taken from their merely literal English equivalents. The idea gets rooted that these subordinate clauses are only to be used when there appears in the English all the bald and literal apparatus, with which the study of syntax has associated them in the mind. Before employing a final clause, the student is likely to wait for the occurrence of the talisman "in order that"; before using a consecutive clause, he is on the watch for "so that"; nor will he venture on a conditional sentence , unless he alights on an "if." Similarly it is a common mistake to think the three constructions possible after verba sentiendi et declaranti, and the formula φοβεῖται μὴ can only be used where the English presents some such phrase as "he said that, "he fears that." It is true that the literal renderings of the various Greek subordinate subordinate clauses — substantival, adjectival, and adverbial — may be used and are used in English. But the latter language, owing to its analytic character, is not so rigid in this respect as Greek, and easily dispenses with formalities indispensable to the Ancients. Many instances might be cited, in which such ideas as motive, final cause, consequence, the circumstances of time, place, condition, and comparison, are best rendered in English, without recourse to the formal clauses to which the foregoing words give names, yet where such clauses would be essential in Greek.
Hence the necessity of going beyond the ordinary teaching of syntax, and of obtaining a more comprehensive view of the various functions which these Subordinate Clause-formulas will fulfill for the translator from English.
In this study at every page there will recur the great principle of the " Predominance of the English Substantive." Indeed it will account for at least three-fourths of the examples to be cited; so that the present chapter may be regarded as a continuation of the treatise on the First Fundamental Difference.*[The treatise on " Fundamental Differences " was the first compiled.] The principles of " Lucidity ", " Directness ", " Precision ", will incidentally reappear. There are however certain points to be gleaned, which justify the separate treatment.

§9 The following are the clauses to be discussed :


  1. Indirect Discourse.
  2. Indirect Question and Exclamation.
  3. The Effort Clause.

  4. The Clauses following on
  5. Verbs of Fearing.
  6. Verbs of Hindering and Forbidding.
  7. Verbs of Emotion.



  1. Temporal.
  2. Comparative.
  3. Conditional.
  4. Concessive.
  5. Causal.
  6. Final.
  7. Consecutive.

10. 1. For the rules governing Indirect Discourse see the Chapter on Oratio Obliqua. (Part III., Ch. 14, § 347 sqq.)

2. The Greek forms of Indirect Discourse, besides rendering such phraseology as " he said that", " he felt that", etc., may be often used to represent an English abstract or Verbal Noun. They also afford many examples of the Greek Verb replacing an English Substantive. (Vide § 147, also Part II., § 316 sqq.)

3. Indirect Discourse furnishes a large number of instances of the principle of Directness. (Part II., § 321 sqq.)

Nor do you take any forethought of your affairs until you hear either of some accomplished fact, or of some event in process of accomplishment. Οὐδὲ τῶν πραγμάτων προορᾶτε οὐδὲν πρὶν ἂν ἢ γεγενημένόν ἢ γιγνόμενόν τι πύθησθε. Dem. Phil. I. 41.
They contested the justice of their condemnation. Ἀντέλεγον μὴ δικαίως σφῶν καταδεδικάσθαι.
They send a messenger to announce the coming of reinforcements. Πέμπουσιν ἀγγελοῦντα ὅτι βοήθεια ἥξει.
Aware of his intended flight. Ἐπιστάμενος ὅτι φεύξοιτο.
This man's goodness I know well. Τὸν ἄνδρα εὖ οἶδ ὅτι ἀγαθός ἐστιν.
Without a previous verdict as to my guilt. Μηδὲ προεγνωκότες ὡς ἀδικῶ.
I do not dispute his guilt. Οὐκ ἀπαρνοῦμαι (μὴ οὐκ) αἴτιον αὐτὸν εἶναι.
Let no one suppose us indifferent to you, convinced that your safety means less harm to us. Μηδεὶς ὑπολάβῃ ὅτι οὐ κηδόμεθα περὶ ὑμῶν, γνοὺς ὅτι σωζομένων ὑμῶν |ῆσσον ἂν ἡμεῖς βλαπτοίμεθα.
before information concerning their plight reaches us. Πρὶν ἐκπύστους γενέσθαι ἡμᾶς πῶς ἔχουσι{see Th.3.30}
When anyone tells us of his meeting a man. Ἐπειδάν τις ἀγγέλλῃ ὅτι ἐπέτυχεν ἀνθρώπῳ
I represented the necessity of securing Theban support. Δεῖν, ἔφην, τοὺς Θηβαίους πεῖσαι ὥστε βοηθεῖν.
Foreseeing the outbreak of war. Προιδόντες ὅτι ἔσοιτο πόλεμος
Observing the enemy's superiority and the smallness of the defenders' numbers. Ὁρῶντες ὀλίγους ὄντας πρὸς πλείους τοὺς προφύλακας.
He noticed the victory of his own men. Ἤισθετο ὅτι νικῶσιν οἱ μετ' αὐτοῦ.
They declared their willingness to help us. Ἕτοιμοι εἶναι ἔφασαν βοήθειαν ἠμῖν παραέχειν.
I know no masters. Οὐκ οἶδα δεσπότας κεκτημένος.
Make up your minds that we shall not listen. Ὡς τοίνυν μὴ ἀκουσομένων ἡμῶν οὕτω διανοεῖσθε( Plato).
(This formula is quite common in Isocrates).
§ 12.
They came to say, that their defeat was due to their own confusion. Ἦλθον ἀγγελοῦντες ὡς τῇ σφετέρᾳ ταραχή ἡττηθεῖεν.
The news of his advance made them alter their plans. Ὁρμηθέντα αὐτὸν πυθόμενοι τῶν δεδογμένων ἐξέστησαν.
§ 13. The clause known as 'Indirect Question', both in its interrogative and exclamatory forms, is very frequently the best equivalent of an English substantive, abstract or verbal. As the Adjective Clause fulfills the same function, the difference between the two, being sometimes only grammatical, becomes occasionally imperceptible. It should therefore be noticed that an Indirect Question or Relative Clause, according to context, will often be the most suitable rendering of such words as the following: 'motive', 'reason', 'cause', 'plan', 'method', ' means ', ' purpose ', ' source', ' origin ', ' nature ', ' quality ', ' character ', ' details ', ' time ', ' place ', ' date ', ' number ', 'extent', 'size', 'room', 'space', 'proceedings', 'results', ' issue', ' news', ' course of action', ' Hue of policy ', behavior, conduct, etc. etc.
You were competent to discriminate between practices that make for amelioration, and such as tend to deterioration. Οἷός τε ἦσθα γιγνώσκειν ποῖα, έπιτηδεύµατα βελτίους χείρους ποιεῖ(Plato)
You are most desirous of hearing about the money question, its amount and sources. Τὸ των χρηµάτων πόσα καὶ πόθεν έσται µάλιστα ποθεῖτε ἀκοῦσαι Dem. Phil. I. 36.
We are about to commend to you the aspirations that befit youth, the kind of deeds to refrain from, the class of men to associate with, the manner of ordering your life.Μέλλομέν σοι συμβουλεύειν ὧν τούς νεωτέρους ὀρέγεσθαι καὶ τίνων ἔργων ἀπέχεσθαι καὶ ποίοις τισὶν ἀνθρώποις ὁμιλεῖν καί πῶς τὸν ἑαυτῶν βίον οἰκονοµεεῖ. Isoc. Ι. 5.
Rather than be lost in the crowd without recognition of one's character. Μᾶλλον ἦ φέρεσθαι μετὰ τοῦ πλήθους μὴ ’γιγνωσκόμενος ὁποῖός τίς ἐστιν. Isoc. 3. 16.
Perceiving my condition. Αἰσθόμενος ὡς ἔχοιμι (Andoc.).
Though with much to say of their conduct towards others, one might state in the briefest possible way that . . . Πρὸς δὲ τοὺς ἄλλους πολλὰ ἅν τις· ἔχων εἰπεῖν ὡς προσφέρονται συνελὼν μάλιστ’·ἂν δηλώσειεν . . . Thuc. V. 105. 3.
Can you state a general definition of imitation? Μίμησιν ὅλως ἂν ἔχοις εἰπεῖν ὅ τι πότη ἐστιν ;
No one knew their destination. Οποι πορεύοιντο οὐδεὶς ᾔδει.
He was arranging the details of the order of the procession. Διεκόσμει ὡς ἕκαστα ἐχρῆν τῆς·πομπῆς προϊέναι (Thuc.).
He relates the details of the battle. Τὰ τῆς· μάχης διηγεῖται πῶς ἕκαστα ἐγένετο .
The question of their dispositions towards us. Τὸ πῶς ἔχουσι πρὸς ἡμᾶς.
To reveal their dispositions towards the worthless and the good respectively. Δηλῶσαι πῶς ἔχουσι πρὸς τοὺς φαύλους καὶ σπουδαίονς τῶν ἀνθρώπων.
I am in a state of financial embarrassment. Ἀπορῶ ὅθεν χρήματα λάβω.
They did not realize the extent of the affair. Τὸ πρᾶγμα οὐκ ᾖσαν ὁπόσον εἴη τὸ μέγεθος
Who can tell the motive or inducement he had to do this ? Τίς ἂν λέγοι τί μαθὼν ἢ τί παθὼν ταῦτ’ ἔδρασεν
I cannot foresee the issue. Ὅποι προβήσεται τὸ πρᾶγμα (or τὰ ἐκβησόμενα) προορᾶν οὐ δύναμαι.
I do not understand his line of policy. Τὴν προαίρεσιν ἥντινα ἔχει τῆς πολιτείας οὐ μανθάνω.
You cannot see the magnitude of their good fortune. Τὸ εὐτύχημα πόσοντι γεγένηται οὐκ ἔστιν ὑμῖν ὁρᾶν.
They are considering the means of obtaining peace. Σκοποῦσι τί ἂν ποιοῦντες εἰρήνης τύχοιεν.
They remain inactive, giving no inkling of their future measures. Ἡσυχάζουσιν οὐδὲν δηλοῦντες τί τὸ μέλλον ποιήσουσιν.
They were deliberating on the best method of prosecuting the war, and on the most effective plan of opposition to the peace. Ἐβουλεύοντο ὅπως ἄριστα τὸν πόλεμον ποιήσωνται καὶ ὅπως μάλιστα ἐναντιωθείησαν τῇ εἰρήνῃ
Thales on being questioned about the best possible mode of life. Θαλῆς ἐρωτηθεὶς πῶς ἂν ἄριστα βιοῖμεν (βιοίημεν).
When I have expounded to you my motives for deeming such a force adequate. Ἐπειδὰν διότι τηλικαύτην ἀποχρῆν οἶμαι τὴν δύναμιν διδάξω.Dem. Phil. I. 22.
You shall know the nature (quality or character) of the event. Γνώσεσθε ποῖόν τι τὸ γεγενημένον ἐστίν.
Whoso shall point out the nature of the force we must provide, its strength and resources, so as to enable it to remain in the field till . . . Ὃς ἂν δείξῃ τίς πορισθεῖσα παρασκευὴ καὶ πόση καὶ πόθεν διαμεῖναι δυνήσεται ἕως ἄν . . . Dem. Phil. I.
On being asked for news, he declared he was unable to ascertain the enemy's numbers. Ἐρωτηθεὶς ὅ τι ἀγγέλλοι, ἀδυνατον οἱ ἔφη μαθεῖν ὁπόσοι εἴησαν οἱ πολέμιοι.
Do you know the object of his lies? . Ἆρ’ οἶσθα διὰ τίψεύδεται; or . Ἆρ’ οἶσθα τίνος δεόμενος ψεύδεται; or ἆρ’ οἶσθα τί διανοεῖται ψευδόμενος.
I shall briefly explain the origin of his mistake. .Διὰ βραχέων φράσω ὁπόθεν ἡμαρτεν
They looked out for a place of safety. Ὅπῃ σωθήσονται διεσκόπουν.
His hiding-place was revealed. Ἤτγτγειλέ τις ὅπου κεκρυμμένος εἴη ἐκεῖνος.
They consulted the oracle on the question whether it was better policy for them to succour G reece, and they received the oracular answer. Ἐχρηστηριάζοντο τῷ θεῷ εἰ σφίσιν ἄμεινον εἴη (ἔσται) τῆ Ἑλλάδι τιμωροῦσι καὶ αὐτοῖς ἐχρήσθη.
To watch their proceedings. Παρατηρεῖν τί ποιοῦσιν ( or τὰ γιγνόμενα).
You ask the reason of his great hatred. Ἐρωτᾶτε διὰ τί τοσοῦτον μισεῖ.
Make no man a friend save on enquiry into his relations (treatment of ) towards his former friends.Μηδένα φίλον ποιοῦ πρὶν ἂν ἐξετάσῃς πῶς κέχρηται τοῖς πρότερον φίλοις. Isoc. 1 . 24.
In order to ascertain the state of the war. Τὰ τοῦ πολέμων ἐν, ὅτῳ ἐστὶν εἰσόμενος. Thuc. VI. 6. 3.
To examine the state of affairs in Asia. Ἐξετάζειν πῶς ἔχει τὰ πράγματα τὰ ἐν Ἀσίᾳ.
Each one knows in advance the time, the persons from whom he is to get things, the things to get, and the work to be done. Καὶ προοῖδεν ἕκαστος πότε καὶ παρὰ τοῦ καὶ τίνα λαβόντα τί δεῖ ποιεῖν
On being questioned about the whereabouts of Ardiasus. Ἐρωτώμενος ὅπου εἴη Ἀρδιαῖος.
§15. Very frequent in Greek is the use of οἶος, ὅσος, ἡλίκος, and ὡς, with or without an adverb, (e.g.ὡς Βραδέως) for the indirect expression of exclamation, giving rise to a somewhat peculiar idiom. The exclamational character inherent in the words, ὡς, οἷος, ὅσος, etc., enables them to express degree of intensity which in English is mostly rendered by strong epithets or by substantives.
You do not know the outrageous treatment I have received at his hands. Οὐκ οἶσθα οἷα ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ κακῶς· πέπονθα.
Reflecting from what depths of disaster they reached such extraordinary prosperity. Ἐνθυμέούμιενρι ἐξ οἵων συμφορῶν εἰς οἵαν εὐδαιμονίαν κατέστησαν.
Seeing to what a state they have reduced the State. Ὁρῶν εἰς ἃ προήχασι τὴν πόλιν.
(Considering) the greatness of God whom I have offended. Εἰς οἷον ὄντα τὸν θεὸν ἡμάρτηκα.
Fancy the intensity of my delight seeing his greatness and power. Ὡς ἥσθην ἐνθυμήθητι ὁρῶν ἡλίκος· ἐστὶν καὶ ὅσων κύριος.
An immense crowd. Ὄχλος ὑπερφυὴς ὅσος.
A mightty task. Ἔργον ἀμήχανον ὅσον.
Enormously greater. Ἀμηχάνῳ ὅσῳ μεῖζον.
Marvellously well. Θαυμασίως ὡς εὖ.
They compared the great inexperience and cowardice of their own general with the superior skill and daring of his opponent. Ἀπελογίζοντο τὴν ἐκείνου ἡγεμονίαν πρὸς οἵαν ἐμπειρίαν καὶ τόλμαν μεθ’ οἵας ἀνεπιστημοσύνης καὶ μαλακίας γένοιτο. Thuc.
Do not grow faint-hearted seeing the great importance of the contest. Μὴ ὑμεῖς μαλακισθῆτε ὁρῶντες περὶ ὅσων ὁ ἀγὼν ἔσται.
It seems you have not even reflected what manner of men these Athenians are, against whom the contest lies, and how utterly and totally different they are from you. Δοκεῖτε οὐδ’ ἐκλογίσασθαι πώποτε πρὸς οἵους ὑμῖν Ἀθηναίους ὄντας καὶ ὅσον ὑμῶν καὶ ὡς πᾶν διαφέροντας ὁ ἁγὼν ἔσται. Thuc. 1.10.2 cf. 1.73.2 ad fin..
§16. This noun clause derives its name from the class of verbs after which it is employed, i.e. all predications of effort (physical or moral) to bring about action, or induce state. Its usual form is ὅπως with future indicative, (πράττε ὅπως μὴ φθήσονται εἰσελθόντες , see to it that they be not the first to enter); though the accusative and infinitive is also frequently used, especially after past tenses. Whereas the Greek mode of expression is limited to the foregoing two forms, the English varies very much :
I shall see to its being done (or “to its accomplishment"). Πράξω ὅπως γενήσεται..
They procured the dispatch of envoys. Ἔπραξαν ὅπως πεμφθήσονται πρέσβεις.
I shall exert myself to bring about a truce. Σπουδάσομαι ὅπως σπονδαὶ γενήσονται.
He is on his guard against a surprise. Φυλάττεται ὅπως μὴ ἀφύλακτος ληφθήσεται.
He had them cudgeled to death. Ἀποτυμπανισθῆναι αὐτοὺς ἐποίησεν.
To the best of their power they contributed to our defeat in the sea-fight. Καθ’ ὅσον ἐδύναντο ἐποίησαν ἡττηθῆναι ναυμαχοῦντας (ἡμᾶς) (Lysias).
§17. The predications of effort, followed usually by ὅπως and future indicative, are as follows: :
(1) To take thought, to take measures. Σκοπεῖν.
To display anxiety or concern, Φροντίζειν.
To devise means, plans etc. Βουλεύεσθαι.
(2) (Active measures).
To be on one's guard, Φυλάττεσθαι.
Take precautions, Εὐλαβεῖσθαι.
To see to it that, Ὁρᾶν, σκοπεῖν.
To contrive, make arrange- ments, Μηχανᾶσθαι, παρασκευάζεσθαι.
Use exertions, Σπουδάζειν, σπεύδειν, ἁμιλλᾶσθαι.
Take active steps, Πράττειν, ποιεῖν, παρασκευάζεσθαι.
To take care, pains, Ἐπιμελεῖσθαι.
Show disregard, indifference. Ἀμελεῖν, ὀλιγωρεῖν, but the two latter verbs are more commonly
followed by the Participial or by the Infinitival construction.
It will have been observed that the effort clause will, in certain circumstances, be the best equivalent of an English Abstract or Verbal noun.
N.B. — Compare the Latin : ut pons aedificaretur curavit = pontem aedificari curavit = pontem aedificandum curavit.
Examples of the Effort Clause.
§18. The predications of effort, followed usually by ὅπως and future indicative, are as follows: :
They are indifferent to efforts for their amelioration.Ὀλιγωροῦσι τῶν σπουδαζόντων ὅπως αὐτοὶ αὐτῶν βελτίους γενήσονται.
We must attach the greatest importance to the speedy transfer of the war from these parts to the Continent. Περὶ παντὸς ποιητέον ὅπως ὡς τάχιστα τὸν ἐνθένδε πόλεμον εἰς τὴν ἤπειρον διοριοῦμεν.
We must take measures to rid ourselves of this existing enmity. Ἡμᾶς δεῖ σκοπεῖν ὅπως ἀπαλλαγησόμεθα Τῆς παρούσης ἔχθρας.
You should guard against any such mistakes. Φυλακτέον ὅπως μηδὲν ’Τοιοῦτον ἁμαρτήσεσθε.
Exhorting us to no surrender. Παρακελευόμενος ὅπως μηδὲν ἐνδώσομέν.
As it behoves you to exert yourself to rival your father's practices. Ὡς σοὶ σκοπεῖν προσήκει ὅπως ἐνάμιλλος γενήσει τοῖς τοῦ πατρὸς ἐπιτηδεύμασιν. Isoc. 1.12
Be careful to do nothing unworthy of this office. Φρόντιζ ὅπως μηδὲν ἀνάξιον τῆς τιμῆς ταύτης πράξεις. Isoc. 2.37
The marines took care that the work on deck should be equal to the occasion. Οἵ ἐπιβάται ἐθεράπευον μὴ λείπεσθαι τὰ ἀπὸ τοῦ καταστρώματος.
They nevertheless induced the Lacedemonians to make these concessions. Τάδε ὅμως ἐπηγάγοντο τοὺς Λακεδαιμονίους συγχωρῆσαι (Thuc.).
Was it not in their power to procure (ensure) refusal of burial even to my corpse? Οὐκ ἐξῆν αὐτοῖς ποιῆσαι μηδὲ ταφῆς τὸ σῶμα ἀξιωθῆναι; Andok. Myst. 138.
They were keener than myself about sending this work to you.Ἔσπευδον δὲ μᾶλλον ἢ ‘γὼ ’πεμφθῆναί σοι τὸν λόγον τοῦτον. Isoc. 23.
Has he not brought the Thessalians to such friendly relations that . . . Οὐ Θετταλοὺς οὕτως οἰκείως πρὸς αὑτὸν διακεῖσθαι πεποίηκεν ὡσθ’. . . Isoc. 5.20.
He brought ruin on the unfortunate Phocians by his false announcements here. Τοὺς ταλαιπώρους Φωκέας ἐποίησεν ἀπολέσθαι τὰ ψευδὴ δεῦρ’ ἀγγείλας. De Cor. 142.
This decree caused the danger, then impending, to pass over like a cloud.Τοῦτο τὸ ψήφισμα τὸν τότε τῇ πόλει περιστάντα κίνδυνον παρελθεῖν ἐποίησεν ὥσπερ νέφος. De Cor. 188.
He cannot possibly keep silence. Οὐκ ἔστιν ὅπως σιγήσεται.
He certainly will keep silence. Οὐκ ἔστιν ὅπως οὐ σιγήσεται.
Mind you keep silence. Ὅπως σιγήσει.
§21. Following on verbs of fearing a whole clause, introduced by μή or μὴ οὐ, will often be necessary, even when the English has only an abstract or verbal noun.
In fear of immediate arrest. Φοβούμενος· μὴ ’παραχρῆμα συλληφθῇ.
They dreaded the arrival of the fleet. Ἐφοβοῦντο μὴ αἱ νῆες παραγένοιντο.
Guarding against the appearance of flight. Φυλαττόμενος μὴ δοκοίη φυγεῖν.
I feared the effects of his discourse (cf. Lucidity, Part II., Ch. 12). .Ἐφοβούμην μὴ πείθοι (αὐτοὺς) λέγων
At the same time owing to their defeats they feared a revolt on the part of their allies. Τοὺς συμμάχους ἅμα ἐδεδίεσαν μὴ διὰ τὰ σφάλματα ἀποστῶσι.
Afraid of trouble arising from his examination under torture. Δείσαντες μὴ βασανιζόμενος ταραχὴν σφίσι ποιήσῃ.

§ 22. N.B. 1. Fear may be said to have its source within as well as without. Hence, in Greek and Latin, the construction following on predications of internal fear (i.e. where the fear is personal to the subject of the principal verb, and the subject is the same in both clauses) is invariably the Infinitive : Timeo ire, φοβοῦμαι ἰέναι = I fear to go or I am afraid of going.

N.B. 2. When the fear, as revealed by context, is external . (whether the subject be the same or not in both clauses), the Latin and Greek constructions coincide : Timeo ne, timeo ut = δέδοικα μή . . ., δέδοικα μὴ οὐ, save that Greek employs Indicative when the object of fear is a fact ;

Ἄμεινον σκόπει μή σε λανθάνω οὐδὲν ὤν.
Φοβεῖσθε μὴ δυσκολώτερόν τι νῦν διάκειμαι ἢ ἐν τῷ πρόσθεν βίῳ.

N.B. 3. After Verbs of precaution, i.e. εὐλαβεῖσθαι, etc., the effort clause (ὅπως with future indicative), or the "Fearing" construction, i.e. μή and μὴ οὐ, are used, according as the idea of positive measures of prevention, or of precautions of fear, prevails.


§ 23. Greek abounds in Verbs and Verbal periphrases expressive of the various emotions. The object of the emotion is rendered either (a) by substantives or by (b) Noun-clauses or an equivalent participial clause.

(a) When the object of the emotion is expressed by a noun, it takes the form of the dative with ἐπί (on the score of) ἐπὶ ταῖς δωροδοκίαις ὀργίζεσθαι , or the dative (of cause) alone, e.g. οὐ διίεαίοις λόγοις χαίρει, "He takes no delight in the language of justice"; or, it may be genitive or accusative according to the character of the verb, e.g.

I marvel at your daring. Θαυμάζω σου τῆς τόλμης.
I am neither jealous of D.'s pursuits nor ashamed of my own. Ἐγὼ οὔτε τὰς Δημοσθένους διατριβὰς ἐζήλωκα οὐτ’ ἔτι ταῖς ἐμαυτοῦ αἰσχύνομαι.

§ 24. (b) The constructions following on verbs of emotion are

( α ) εἰ or ὅτι with Ind. (or its equivalent the pot. opt., etc.) apart from virtual 0. 0., when it is replaced by optative.
( β ) The infinitive and infinitive clause.
( γ ) The participle.

The difference between the εἰ clause (e.g. θαυμάζω εἰ ), and the ὅτι clause (e.g. θαυμάζω ὅτι ) seems to be this : εἰ is used to emphasize subjective emotion, ὅτι for objective emotion. Hence :

Ἀγανακτῶ εἰ . = I am annoyed at the very idea.
Ἀγανακτῶ ὅτι = I am annoyed at the fact.

Hence also where it is intended to direct attention to the internal feeling rather than its external cause the εἰ clause will prevail, as is especially the case with the emotions of indignation, surprise, and shame.


§ 25. Wonder and Admiration, usually θαυμάζω εἰ or ὅτι , sometimes , θαυμάζω ὅπως (e.g. ἤθελε ), also ἐθαύμαζε ὁρῶν τὸ ποιούμενον. Fright καὶ τοῖς μὲν Συρακόσιοις κατάπληξις ἐγένετο εἰ πέρας μηδὲν ἔσται σφίσι τοῦ ἀπαλλαγῆναι τοῦ πολέμου.


I deem monstrous, Δεινὸν ποιοῦμαι εἰ or ὅτι.
I consider outrageous, "
I am indignant. "
I am annoyed, Ἀγανακτῶ εἰ or ὅτι.
I lose patience. "
I chafe, am indignant, Χαλεπαίνω.
I am grieved, pained. Βαρέως φέρω, ἄχθομαι.
Many were annoyed at Aristodemus' failure to give a report of his mission. Ἐνταῦθ’ ἠγανάκτησαν πολλοὶ ὅτι τὴν πρεσβείαν οὐκ ἀπήγγειλεν ὁ Ἀριστόδημος.
Indignant at being ruled by Medes. Δεινὸν ποιούμενοι ὑπὸ Μήδων ἄρχεσθαι.
Indignant at the idea of betraying Greece. Τὴν Ἑλλάδα δεινὸν ποιούμενοι παραδοῦναι.
This very thought maddens me, that whereas some of you are grieved at the plunder of (your) money, you are not pained at Philip's plundering Greece. Καίτοι ἀγανακτῶ καὶ αὐτὸ τοῦτο εἰ τὰ μὲν χρήματα λυπεῖ τινὰς ὑμῶν εἰ διαρπασθήσεται, τὴν δὲ Ἑλλάδα Φίλιππος ἁρπάζων οὐ λυπεῖ. Dem. Phil. IV. 57.
It grieves me to recall it repeatedly. Ἄχθομαι δὲ πολλάκις μεμνημένος. (Ctes).

N.B. The εἰ construction is the most frequent after δεινὸν ποιοῦμαι.

Shame αἰσχύνομαι.

He is ashamed of his offenses. Αἰσχύνεται ἐφ’ οἶς’ ἡμάρτηκεν.
I am ashamed of being thought by some to betray truth for the sake of old age and its short span. Αἰσχύνομαι γὰρ εἴ τισι δόξω δεδιὼς ὑπὲρ ’γήρως καὶ μικροῦ βίον προδιδόναι τὴν ἀλήθειαν (Isoc).
You are not ashamed to play the impostor in matters where you are instantly convicted of lying. Οὐκ αἰσχύνῃ ἀλαζονευόμενος ἃ παραχρῆμα ἐξελέγχῃ ψευδόμενος.
Just as each of you would be ashamed to quit the post assigned him in war.Ὥσπερ ἄν ἕκαστος ὑμῶν αἰσχυνθείη τὴν τάξιν λιπεῖν ἤνπερ ἂν ταχθῇ ἐν τῷ πολέμῳ.
Cf. also τοῖς παροῦσι στέργειν or ἀγαπᾶν = to make the best of it.

§26. Acquiescence/ Satisfaction, Στέργειν/Ἀγαπᾶν εἰ. Cf. also τοῖς παροῦσι στέργειν or ἀγαπᾶν = to make the best of it.

To put up with, Καρτερεῖν, ἀνέχεσθαι.

Matters which at the time I could not bear to hear and which I now recall with pain. Vide Part III., § 404b, on αὐτῶν. Ἃ οὔτε τότ’ ἐκαρτέρουν ἀκούων οὔτε νῦν ἡδέως·μέμνημαι αὐτῶν, Ctes. 118.
Dem. is not content with not paying the penalty but is annoyed at not getting a golden wreath.Δημοσθένης οὐκ ἀγαπᾷ εἰ μὴ δίκην δέδωκε ἀλλ εἰ μὴ χρυσῷ στεφάνῳ στεφανωθήσεται ἀγανακτεῐ..

Pity, Ἐλεεῖν εἰ or ὅτι

Pardon, Συγγνώμην ἔχειν, εἰ or ὅτι

Not out of pity for the demolition of the walls, nor out of concern for the surrender of the Ships to the Lacedemonians. Οὐκ ἐλεοῦντες τὰ τείχη εἰ πεσεῖται, οὐδὲ κηδόμενοι τῶν νεῶν εἰ Λακεδαιμονίοις παραδοθήσονται. Lys. Agor. 15.
I pardon your embarrassment. Ὅτι ἀπορεῖς συγγνώμην ἔχω.

Envy, , Φθονεῖν.
Jealousy, Ζηλοῦν . (rivalry)

He envies him his success.Φθονεῖ αὐτῷ εὖ πράσσοντι.
Empire over Asia and Europe divine envy denied to one man. See Verba volendi, § 256c. Ἐφθόνησαν οἱ θεοὶ ἄνδρα ἕνα τῆς τε Ἀσίας καὶ τῆς Εὐρώπης· βασιλεῦσαι. Herod VIII. 10.

Grief, Λυπεῖσθαι
Repentance, Μεταμέλεσθαι and Μεταμέλει μοι.

They regretted not having made a truce after the Pylos incident when a good opportunity offered. Μετεμέλοντο ὅτι μετὰ τὰ ἐν Πύλῳ, καλῶς παρασχόν, οὐ συνέβησαν. Thuc. V. 14.
You will not repent of doing so. Οὐ γὰρ ὑμῖν ταῦτα ποιοῦσι μεταμελήσει.
To be pained at the sight of the poor getting these doles. Λυπεῖσθαι ταῦτα λαμβάνοντας ὁρῶν τοὺς ἀπόρους. Dem. Phil. IV.
Joy, Χαίρω ὅτι. E.g. χαίρω ὅτι εὐδοκιμεῖς, but we have also ἥδεται τὸ φῶς ὁρῶν, etc., The sight of the light fills him with delight.
Ἥδομαι ὅτι.
Anger , Ὀργίζεσθαι ὅτι. (Mostly) because employed in speaking objectively of another's emotion.
Wrath, Δι’ ὀργῆς ἔχειν ὅτι.
In wrath at their not voting for a march on Lepreum. Ὀργισθέντες ὅτι οὐκ ἐπὶ Λέπρεον ἐψηφίσαντο.Thuc. V. 62 ; cf . V. 29.
Praise and Blame, Ἐπαινῶ)(μέμφομαι = ἐπιτιμῶ, εἰ or ὅτι.
Approval and Accusation, Ἐπαινῶ) (αἰτιῶμαι=έν αἰτίᾳ, ἔχω, εἰ or· ὅτι.
You have my highest praise for the just and silent hearing you are giving us. Ἐπαινῶ δ’ εἰς ὑπερβολὴν ὑμᾶς ὅτι σιγῇ καὶ δικαίως ἡμῶνἀκούετε. De Falsa 24.
You upbraid me for my occasional rather than continuous dabbling in (politics) public deliberations. Ἐπιτιμᾷς δέ μοι εἰ μὴ συνεχῶς ἀλλὰ διαλείπων πρὸς τὸν δῆμον προσέρχομαι. .
They proceeded to send envoys to remonstrate with Sparta, for their indifference in allowing' a barbarian invasion of Greece. Ἔπεμπον ἀγγέλους μεμψομένους τοῖς Λακεδαιμονίοις ὅτι περιεῖδον ἐμβαλόντα τὸν βάρβαρον εἰς τὴν Ἀττικήν. Herod.
They blamed Agis for his failure to reduce Argos. Ἄγιν ἐν αἰτίᾳ εἶχον οὑ χειρωσάμενον σφίσιν Ἄργος (= ὅτι οὐκ ἐχειρώσατο). Thuc.V.63.
They accused Gylippus of willfully having allowed the Athenians to depart (i.e. letting slip). Ἐν αἰτία εἶχον Γύλιππον ἑκόντα. ἀφεῖναι τοὺς Ἀθηναίους. Thuc.VII.81.1.
Thanks for your services. Ὅτι ὠφέλησας (εὖ ἐποίησας) ἡμᾶς ἴσμεν.
Besides being the normal equivalent of English Relative Clauses, the Greek Adjective Clause fulfills a variety of other functions.
§27. (1) Adjectival Clauses with neuter relatives not only serve to express classes of things however expressed in English, but they are the best rendering- of many English Abstract and Verbal nouns, e.g.: "aspirations", "wishes", "desires", "feelings", "sentiments", "projects", "plans","views", "narrative", "talk", "reports","assertions", "statements", "orders", "commands", "behests", "dictates", "resolution", "disposition", "condition", "state", "mistake", "customs and practices", "duty", "success", "failure", "deeds", "intentions".